At the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the final outcomes are in the form of various decisions agreed to by consensus of all the Parties following extensive negotiations. The decisions carry varying degrees of commitments and responsibilities of Parties ranging from the purely voluntary or invitation to consider to the fully mandatory.
Such decisions also carry caveats and exemptions under the principles of the Convention and the Paris Agreement, especially the principles of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities & Respective Capabilities in the light of different national circumstances, as applicable to developing countries. Based on the exact text of decisions in the light of these principles, India undertakes such actions as appropriate in fulfilment of its responsibilities.
Under the terms of the Paris Agreement, the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and Long-Term Low Emissions Development Strategy(LT-LEDS) are determined by countries themselves and communicated to the UNFCCC. In keeping with this, India has submitted its updated NDCs on 26th August 2022 and its long-term low carbon development strategy on 14th November 2022.These documents lay out India’s vision and approaches towards reaching net-zero by 2070, which are expected to evolve as necessary over time.
As per LT-LEDS, India’s vision of low carbon development is based on the need to ensure India’s high energy needs for development, including poverty eradication, achieving Sustainable Development Goals and economic growth. Further, it is necessary that the plan for the country’s energy security is based both on the expansion of non-fossil fuel sources for power generation and rational utilization of fossil fuel resources. Specific steps for such utilization include, inter alia, expanding renewables and strengthening the grid and focusing on demand-side management.
This information was given by the Minister of State for Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Shri Ashwini Kumar Choubey in a written reply in Rajya Sabha today.